tier3 field studies on wild birds and mammals can be either generic studies, acute and/or long-term effect monitoring studies or studies on residues in food items.
In generic studies, crop-specific focal species or parameters for a species of concern are determined. Typical parameters are PT (the proportion of an animal’s daily diet obtained in a habitat treated with a plant protection product; PPP) or PD (the composition of the diet obtained from treated area). These studies deliver essential regulatory data, especially for theoretical risk evaluations.
Acute and long-term effect-monitoring studies are conducted to assess the potential impact of specific PPP use (or any other environmental impact) on birds or wild mammals over any length of time. During the registration process, results from these studies can be used as a higher tier assessment or as confirmatory data to support a risk evaluation. These studies can be combined with in situ exposure measurements or the use of biomarkers.
We regularly conduct ecotox residue studies to investigate substance residues on the food items of birds and mammals in order to quantify oral exposure of wildlife following substance applications under conditions of realistic use.